[174][175], Handlooming and handicraft continue. Beshoma is a festival of Deshi people. Dresses like the traditional Mekhela Sador, Mekhela Gamusa, Mekhela Saree are woven from these silks which are mostly done by Assamese women. Sarbananda Sonowal, Present Chief Minister of Assam; Manash Deka, First Assamese inducted in Delhi Pradesh BJP unit,Eastern Arunachal Pradesh BJP Incharge in 2019 state assembly election ,Vikasit Assam Campaign started during 2016 Assam assembly Election; Syeda Anwara Taimur, first woman Chief Minister of Assam. In 1961, the government of Assam passed legislation making use of the Assamese language compulsory. Broadcasting stations of All India Radio have been established in five big cities: Dibrugarh, Guwahati, Kokrajhar, Silchar and Tezpur. The Brahmaputra River tributaries and oxbow lakes provide the region with hydro-geomorphic environment. Bihu is considered as the state festival of Assam. Establishment of the Ahom dynasty in the 13th century CE and assimilation for next 600 years. [173], Floods in Assam greatly affect the farmers and the families dependent on agriculture because of large-scale damage of agricultural fields and crops by flood water. Bhoot Jolokia is so much hotter that it may even cause death to a 150-pound person if he eats a 1kg of such a type of chili. The major tributaries of the Brahmaputra river are Manas, Raidak, Dhansiri, Teesta, Kameng, Dibang, and Jaldhaka. Nepali is included by Assam State Secondary Board, Assam Higher Secondary Education Council and Gauhati University in their HSLC, higher secondary and graduation level respectively. Cotton College, Guwahati, dates back to the 19th century. [194] Sattriya (Sotriya) dance related to Vaishnav tradition is a classical form of dance. The arrangement lasted till 1838 and thereafter the British gradually annexed the entire region. 6 other reasons for what Assam is famous for, Do you need a Visa to go to India? It is one of the oldest and most powerful out of the total 51 Shakti Pithas present in India. This river is so great that if hydropower potential is established around the basin, then it can generate a sum total of about 200,000 Mega Watt of electricity for the country. The industry saw initial growth, when in 1861, investors were allowed to own land in Assam and it saw substantial progress with the invention of new technologies and machinery for preparing processed tea during the 1870s. Out of these 5, only two of them namely Kaziranga National Park and Manas National Park are declared as UNESCO World Heritage Parks in Assam. Between 1946-1951, 274,455 Bengali Hindu refugees have arrived from what is now called Bangladesh (former East Pakistan) in Assam as permanent settlers. The satras and Patharughat Swaheed Minar in Darrang, Charaideo in Sivsagar, Sukapha Samannay Kshetra in Jorhat, Khaspur in Silchar and Surya Pahar in Goalpara are also some of those. Assam is the world’s largest tea growing region,contributing to the world tea production.Assam is famous for nature beauty of the tea plantation. [98] Every district is administered from a district headquarters with the office of the Deputy Commissioner, District Magistrate, Office of the District Panchayat and usually with a district court. The area is dotted with numerous temples, mosques and churches, as well as other religious and sacred artefacts. In 1985, the Indian Government and leaders of the agitation signed the Assam accord to settle the conflict. [citation needed], Fish curries made of free range wild fish as well as Bôralí, rôu, illish, or sitôl are the most popular. The reigning monarch Chandrakanta Singha tried to check the Burmese invaders but he was defeated after fierce resistance. The state is the last refuge for numerous other endangered and threatened species including the white-winged wood duck or deohanh, Bengal florican, black-breasted parrotbill, red-headed vulture, white-rumped vulture, greater adjutant, Jerdon's babbler, rufous-necked hornbill, Bengal tiger, Asian elephant, pygmy hog, gaur, wild water buffalo, Indian hog deer, hoolock gibbon, golden langur, capped langur, barasingha, Ganges river dolphin, Barca snakehead, Ganges shark, Burmese python, brahminy river turtle, black pond turtle, Asian forest tortoise, and Assam roofed turtle. Assamis northeastern state of India sprawled with numerous temples and monuments, which stand witness to the great historical and cultural past of the state.Some of these monuments date back to the medieval days. The urbanisation rate was recorded at 12.9%. It split into two in c. 1581 CE, the western part as a Mughal vassal and the eastern as an Ahom satellite state. All three dynasties claimed descent from Narakasura. Checklist of the birds of Assam. There is a total of 5 national parks in Assam viz. Kaziranga National Park, located in the Golaghat and Nagaon district in Assam is the top option to choose if you want to get a view of the Indian one-horned rhinoceros. Apart from houses and livestock being washed away by flood water, bridges, railway tracks and roads are also damaged by the calamity, which causes communication breakdown in many places. [154] Assam's GDP in 2004 is estimated at $13 billion in current prices. The state is bordered by Bhutan and Arunachal Pradesh to the north; Nagaland and Manipur to the east; Meghalaya, Tripura, Mizoram and Bangladesh to the south; and West Bengal to the west via the Siliguri Corridor, a 22 kilometres (14 mi) wide strip of land that connects the state to the rest of I… It was incorporated into the new province of Eastern Bengal and Assam in 1905 after the partition of Bengal (1905–1911) and re-established in 1912 as Assam Province . 9. (1990). Then, this place Halflong situated at the height of about 650-690 km surrounded by hills, landscapes, valleys, and mountains is also the best fit for you. The Koch, another Bodo-Kachari dynasty, established sovereignty in c. 1510 CE. Session (2001). Guwahati is the largest metropolitan area and urban conglomeration administered under the highest form of urban local body – Guwahati Municipal Corporation in Assam. The neighboring states of Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Mizoram, and Meghalaya were once part of Assam. The average annual growth rate of agriculture, which was 2.6% per annum over the 1980s, has fallen to 1.6% in the 1990s. Xorai is a traditionally manufactured bell-metal article of great respect and is used as a container-medium while performing respectful offers. [citation needed]. [159] The advanced estimates placed the growth rate for 2005–06 at above 6%. [204] Most literary works are written in Assamese although other local language such as Bodo and Dimasa are also represented. This beautiful temple is a mixture of art, ritual, and pilgrim of both Hindu Vaishnavism and Shaivism. Later, in 1682, Koch Hajo was entirely annexed by the Ahoms. The Chutiya (1187–1673 CE), a Bodo-Kachari group by origin, held the regions on both the banks of Brahmaputra with its domain in the area eastwards from Vishwanath (north bank) and Buridihing (south bank), in Upper Assam and in the state of Arunachal Pradesh. BJP, however claimed that only eight lakh Hindu Bangladeshis will get citizenship. Bodosa has the highest circulation of any Bodo daily from BTC. It is believed that Lord Shiva created this beautiful island for his wife Parvati. [158] In the Sixth Plan period, Assam experienced a negative growth rate of 3.78% when India's was positive at 6%. With a wide variety of indigenous food to offer, the food of Assam is famous for its distinct flavouring and influences. Assam has a great number of World Heritage Sites. Though the Mughals made seventeen attempts to invade, they were never successful. Kindly check your email inbox or spam folder for a confirmation mail and click on the link there to confirm. Linguistically modern Assamese traces its roots to the version developed by the American Missionaries based on the local form used near Sivasagar (Xiwôxagôr) district. [26] The Shans built their kingdom and consolidated their power in Eastern Assam with the modern town of Sibsagar as their capital. at 95–100 °F or 35–38 °C and winter min. Gibbon Books & ASTEC, Guwahati, India, Director of Census Operations, Census of India 2001, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Learn how and when to remove this template message, under pressure from Bengali speaking people in Cachar, List of colleges affiliated to Gauhati University, List of colleges affiliated to Assam University, List of educational institutions in Assam, Indian Certificate of Secondary Education, Assam Rajiv Gandhi University of Cooperative Management, Krishna Kanta Handique State Open University, Kumar Bhaskar Varma Sanskrit and Ancient Studies University, Mahapurusha Srimanta Sankaradeva Viswavidyalaya, National Law University and Judicial Academy, Assam, Srimanta Sankaradeva University of Health Sciences, Indian Institute of Information Technology, Guwahati, Central Institute of Technology, Kokrajhar, Girijananda Chowdhury Institute of Management and Technology, Girijananda Chowdhury Institute of Management and Technology, Tezpur, NETES Institute of Technology & Science Mirza, Lokpriya Gopinath Bordoloi International Airport, Hindustan Paper Corporation Ltd. Assam tea is a black tea named after the region of its production, Assam, India. It was partially annexed in the early 1500s by the Ahoms, finally getting absorbed in 1673 CE. Bodo in Bodoland Territorial Council and Bengali in the three districts of Barak Valley where Sylheti is most commonly spoken.[92]. Traces of the language are found in many poems by Luipa, Sarahapa, and others, in Charyapada (c. 7th–8th century CE). [93][94], Bodo is an ancient language of Assam. Also known as the highest motorcycle museum in the world, it is located at the Timmelsjoch Pass's Austrian side. [clarification needed][64] In addition to the above, there are three other National Parks in Assam namely Dibru Saikhowa National Park, Nameri National Park and the Orang National Park. [163][164], Reduction of the unemployed has been threatened by illegal immigration from Bangladesh. [80] At least 77 people died[81] and 400,000 people were displaced in the 2012 Assam violence between indigenous Bodos and Bengali Muslims. The total population of the state has increased from 26,638,407 to 31,169,272 in the last ten years with a growth rate of 16.93%. Muslims celebrate two Eids (Eid ul-Fitr and Eid al-Adha) with much eagerness all over Assam. (Names changed on request) (Abdul Kalam Azad is a human rights researcher and community worker based in Assam. The Sylhet District of Assam (excluding the Karimganj subdivision) was given up to East Pakistan, which later became Bangladesh. Initially, Assam was made a part of the Bengal Presidency, then in 1906 it was made a part of Eastern Bengal and Assam province, and in 1912 it was reconstituted into a chief commissioners' province. A History of Assam 1926 Calcutta and Shimla Thacker & Co page 232, Barua Gunaviram Assam Buranji or A History of Assam 2008 page117, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFImperial_Gazetteer_of_India_vol._IV1907 (, National Mission on Bamboo Applications 2004, Choudhury, A.U. Remains of mythological structures in the Tezpur and Sonitpur, the Satras of the Vaishnavas in Majuli established by the great saints Sankardeva and Madhavdeva are some of the best historical heritage sites of Assam. [citation needed], Assam has a rich tradition of crafts, Cane and bamboo craft, bell metal and brass craft, silk and cotton weaving, toy and mask making, pottery and terracotta work, wood craft, jewellery making, and musical instruments making have remained as major traditions.[205]. The British allowed companies to rent land from 1839 onwards. Many of the manuscripts such as Hastividyarnava (A Treatise on Elephants), the Chitra Bhagawata and in the Gita Govinda from the Middle Ages bear excellent examples of traditional paintings. Assam’s Goalpara district is famous for the cork or pith toys. It is the youngest and the third largest river in the world and also the biggest river in India. The Dimasa, another Bodo-Kachari dynasty, (13th century-1854 CE) ruled from Dikhow River to central and southern Assam and had their capital at Dimapur. There are about 18 Wildlife Sanctuaries in Assam. Some of the common and unique cultural traits in the region are peoples' respect towards areca-nut and betel leaves, symbolic (gamosa, arnai, etc. Assam has been a major site of migration since the Partition of the subcontinent, with the first wave being composed largely of Hindu Bengali refugees arrriving during and shortly after the establishment of India and Pakistan (current day Bangladesh was originally part of Pakistan, known as East Pakistan) in 1947-1951. [41][42] The Burmese reached the East India Company's borders, and the First Anglo-Burmese War ensued in 1824. This festival is celebrated with great joy and enthusiasm in the whole of north-east India. Ambari site in Guwahati has revealed Shunga-Kushana era artefacts including flight of stairs and a water tank which may date from 1st century BCE and may be 2,000 years old. The Beshoma starts on the last day of Chaitra and goes on till the sixth of Baisakh. Traditionally, Assamese was the language of the common folk in the ancient Kamarupa kingdom and in the medieval kingdoms of Dimasa Kachari, Chutiya Kachari, Borahi Kachari, Ahom and Kamata kingdoms. [160] The manufacturing sector showed some improvement in the 1990s with a growth rate of 3.4% per annum than 2.4% in the 1980s. Assam is mainly known for the production of Assam silk. This is also known as. Bihu is the most important and common and celebrated all over Assam. Along with poetry, Hiren Bhattacharya also worked as an editor of some Assamese newspapers and magazines. The last of these rulers, also Naraka, was slain by Krishna. Moreover, there are other important traditional festivals being celebrated every year on different occasions at different places. For revenue purposes, the districts are divided into revenue circles and mouzas; for the development projects, the districts are divided into 219 'development-blocks' and for law and order these are divided into 206 police stations or thana. Assam has four oil refineries in Digboi (Asia's first and world's second refinery), Guwahati, Bongaigaon and Numaligarh and with a total capacity of 7 million metric tonnes (7.7 million short tons) per annum. [citation needed], The capital, Dispur, contains institutions of higher education for students of the north-eastern region. The Assam territory was first separated from Bengal in 1874 as the 'North-East Frontier' non-regulation province, also known as the Assam Chief-Commissionership. Dresses made up of eri, muga and mulberry silk are the pride and cultural outfit of Assam. boats and ferries from the Kachari Ghat of Guwahati. [citation needed], The state has the largest population of the wild water buffalo in the world. Three Bihus, rongali or bohag, celebrated with the coming of spring and the beginning of the sowing season; kongali or kati, the barren bihu when the fields are lush but the barns are empty; and the bhogali or magh, the thanksgiving when the crops have been harvested and the barns are full. [123][124][125], In January 2019, the Assam's peasant organisation Krishak Mukti Sangram Samiti (KMSS) claimed that there are around 20 lakh Hindu Bangladeshis in Assam who would become Indian citizens if the Citizenship (Amendment) Bill is passed. And Ahom occupied Assam was captured by the Burmese[34][35][36], A reign of terror was unleashed by the Burmese on the Assamese people,[37][38][39][40] who fled to neighbouring kingdoms and British-ruled Bengal. Toys are also carved in wood. Print media include Assamese dailies Amar Asom, Asomiya Khobor, Asomiya Pratidin, Dainik Agradoot, Dainik Janambhumi, Dainik Asam, Gana Adhikar, Janasadharan and Niyomiya Barta. Other places you must visit in Halflong are Orchid Garden, Borail Range, Maibong and Jatinga. [160], Unemployment is one of the major problems in Assam. The both sides of famous river, Brahmaputra, constitute the world's largest Tea growing area. [citation needed], Many indigenous Assamese communities households still continue to brew their traditional alcoholic beverages; examples include: Laupani, Xaaj, Paniyo, Jou, Joumai, Hor, Apang, etc. It was withdrawn later under pressure from Bengali speaking people in Cachar. You must at least give it a try once in your lifetime. English dailies of Assam include The Assam Tribune, The Sentinel, The Telegraph, The Times of India,The North East Times, Eastern Chronicle and The Hills Times. This is also cultivated majorly in the state of Assam. [citation needed], The food is often served in bell metal dishes and platters like Kanhi, Maihang and so on. Other large cities include Dibrugarh, an oil and natural gas industry centre,[55]. This chili is mainly used in the preparation of Assamese cuisine and food like pickles, fish curry, chili sauce, pork, etc. It increased to 14.63 million in 1971 and 22.41 million in 1991. The festival is celebrated on the first day of November every year. Assam is famous for its silks like Eri Silk, White Pat Silk, and Golden Muga Silk. Dihing, Dibru, Dihong, D/Tista, and Dikrai) reveal that it was the most important language in ancient times. Assam due to its large number of tea estates and small tea gardens becomes a great tourist attraction.People are just curious about to have a beautiful view of the tea gardens in Assam and to just have an overview of the production. Two are now extinct.[95]. [14] Every year, large numbers of students obtain higher academic degrees but because of non-availability of proportional vacancies, most of these students remain unemployed. It is important to keep the broader system closer to its roots and at the same time focus on development of the sub-systems. The capital, formerly Shillong, was shifted to Dispur in 1972. [178] The cities of Guwahati[179][180] in the west and Dibrugarh[181][182] in the east with good rail,[183][184] road and air connectivity are the two important nerve centres of Assam, to be selected by Asian Development Bank for providing $200 million for improvement of urban infrastructure.[185][186]. It has its own variety, Camellia sinensis var. Famous Temples in Assam. Especially this festival is celebrated by Assam’s Boro Kacharis tribe. Gibbon Books & WWF-India, Guwahati, India, Choudhury, A.U. The state was the first site for oil drilling in Asia. What are the famous cuisines of Assam? Local news and music are the main priority for that station. [195], A variety of different rice cultivars are grown and consumed in different ways, viz., roasted, ground, boiled or just soaked. [197][198][199] Sankardeva's Borgeet, Ankia Naat, Bhaona and Satra tradition backed the 15th-16th century Assamese literature. [citation needed], Khorisa (fermented bamboo shoots) are used at times to flavour curries while they can also be preserved and made into pickles. The districts are Dhubri, Goalpara, Barpeta, Morigaon, Nagaon, Karimganj, Hailakandi, Darrang and Bongaigaon. [119][120] The 1983 Illegal Migrants (Determination by Tribunal) Act, applied only to Assam, decreed that any person who entered the Assam after Bangladesh declared independence from Pakistan in 1971 and without authorisation or travel documents is to be considered a foreigner, with the decision on foreigner status to be carried out by designated tribunals. A History of Assam 1926 Calcutta and Shimla Thacker & Co page 230, Bhuyan Dr. S.K. Bodoland Autonomous Territorial Council, Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council and Dima Hasao Autonomous Council. According to the board, there are 1.3 crore Muslims in the state, of which 90 lakh are of Bangladeshi origin. Despite numerous invasions, mostly by the Muslim rulers, no western power ruled Assam until the arrival of the British. Moreover, symbolically many ethno-cultural groups use specific clothes to portray respect and pride. Assamese literature dates back to the composition of Charyapada, and later on works like Saptakanda Ramayana by Madhava Kandali, which is the first translation of the Ramayana into an Indo-Aryan language, contributed to Assamese literature. On 19 May 2016, BJP under the leadership of Sarbananda Sonowal won the Assembly elections, thus forming the first BJP-led government in Assam.[96]. [54] Guwahati is also referred to as the "Gateway to the North-East India". [113] The India-Pakistan War of 1965 and the accompanying communal rioting and massacres in Bangladesh produced another wave of largely Hindu migration from East Pakistan (Bangladesh) and a there was a third wave during and after the War of Independence that established Bangladeshi independence in 1971, with Assam home to around a thousand camps housing 347,555 refugees, which included persons of all backgrounds fleeing war. Assam is mostly known for its exquisite silks and the bamboo and cane products, several other crafts are also made here. Many Hindus in Assam are followers of the Ekasarana Dharma sect of Hinduism, which gave rise to Namghar, designed to be simpler places of worship than traditional Hindu temples. [152] The Assam-Arakan basin holds about a quarter of the country's oil reserves, and produces about 12% of its total petroleum. [53] In the south, the Barak originating in the Barail Range (Assam-Nagaland border) flows through the Cachar district with a 25–30 miles (40–50 km) wide valley and enters Bangladesh with the name Surma River. The state has the highest diversity of birds in India with around 820 species. Sarma, a 1989-batch Assam Civil Service officer, is known for his controversial social media posts which made people question his neutrality as a government official. These are the Eri Silk, Muga Silk, and Mulberry Silk. Basically, three types of silk are produced in Assam. 72 pp+, Choudhury, A.U. In this instance, mostly figures of birds, animal figures and forms of gods and goddesses are used for the output. Miles Bronson and local pundits such as Hemchandra Barua with the form available in the Sibsagar (Sivasagar) District (the ex-nerve centre of the Ahom Kingdom). [57][58] Every year, flooding from the Brahmaputra and other rivers deluges places in Assam. [77], The growth of population in Assam has increased since the middle decades of the 20th century. The staple food, easily available ingredients and climate of the area are prime factors that influence the cuisine of a land. Kaziranga and Manas are both World Heritage Sites. Assam is the largest tea producing state in India, accounting to almost 50 percent of the total production. In this article, we will cover Assam’s History, Geography, Demographics, Culture, Economy, Some Politics, and many more. Between April 2020 and July 2020, production of tea in the state stood at 210.13 million kgs, contributing 48% to the total tea production in India. Moreover, great hospitality and bamboo culture are common. The Tamulpan-tradition is an ancient one and is being followed since time-immemorial with roots in the aboriginal Austric culture. Most of the schools follow the state's examination board which is called the Secondary Education Board of Assam. The decisive victory of the Assamese led by general Lachit Borphukan on the Mughals, then under command of Raja Ram Singha, in the Battle of Saraighat in 1671 almost ended Mughal ambitions in this region. It is also to be noted that this was the place where Lord Shiva burnt Kamadeva with the mysterious power of his third eye when Kamadeva disturbed Shiva’s deep and long meditation. [200][201][202][203] Written during the Reign of Ahoms, the Buranjis are notable literary works which are prominently historical manuscripts. The presence of Voiceless velar fricative in Assamese makes it a unique among other similar Indo-Aryan languages. Some of these are: Other few yearly celebrations are Doul Utsav of Barpeta, Brahmaputra Beach Festival, Guwahati, Kaziranga Elephant Festival, Kaziranga and Dehing Patkai Festival, Lekhapani, Karbi Youth Festival of Diphu and International Jatinga Festival, Jatinga can not be forgotten. 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